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 On this page:                                  Binoculars & optical items - described by Anna and Terry Vacani
       Unusual Optics;      Articles by Anna & Terry Vacani;    Article written by other authors;       The list of the binoculars literature Dictionary                                                         

 

                                  
                             Binoculars & optical items: German, British, Polish, French, Russian, Other
 

 

 British
-
Avimo 7 x 42 prototype models  
        ****
-
Ross 12 x 28 with an unconventional construction - 1908
        ****

 Polish
 - H.Kolberg i S-ka -3 binoc.(the first Company); 
        ****
 - H.Kolberg i S-ka 2 binoc.(the second Company);
        ****
 - PZO 6x30 - 2 binoc.;
       ****
 - TZK 10x80 PZO 3 binoc.;
       ****
 - Pocket Microscope PZO;
       ****
 French
 - Huet Paris 15 x 31; ca 1900 -1910    
      
****
 - Huet Proto, Prism 18 x 36; ca 1900 -1910  
      
****
 - Krauss BBT/Huet 7x50
      
****  
 - Nouvelle Maison Jules Huet Cie 20x50
      
****
 - Antique Monocular Brass & Mother of Pearl
     
****
  USA USA

   Page 1
  Bausch & Lomb 7x50 - wield field 1945
       ****
  Biascope Wollensak 6x23 - 1920
       ****
 Sard 6x42 wide field 1943
      ****
 Bausch & Lomb MK91 Mod1 6x50 -1946
    ****

    Page 2
 Bausch & Lomb serial numbers
    **** 
 Russian  Russian

 -
7 x 50 BM Submarine binocular 1969
       ****    
- 2,5 x 24 Opera Binocular USSR
       ****

Other Other   (Austria, Nederland & others)

   Page 1

- Austria; 
     ****  
-
Lieberman & Gortz

     ****
   Page 2
 Nederland7 x 50 Nedinsco

























 

 

 

- German & German affiliates
    
           Page 1

 -
8x60 Carl Zeiss Deck Mounted 
          
****                
 - Hensoldt prototype          
            ****
- 8x60 Carl Zeiss Deck Mounted -1937 
         
**** 
 - 8x60 Carl Zeiss Deck Mounted early model
            ****
Emil Busch-Terlux -12x35        
            ****
- 7x50 H blc for signaling lamp 
           ****
      
Emil Busch-Terlux - 18x46       
           ****
- 7x50 blc UDF
           ****        
Carl Zeiss - Monocular - 8x30 B
             ****                 
25x100 flm                         
             ****
- 10x80 multicoated cxn
              ****        
- 7 x 50 Septarem H Carl Zeiss Jena
             ****
            Page 2

-
7 x 50 beh - 1940
          
****
- 7 x 50 beh Artil Model- 1940            
 
         ****
-
Carl Zeiss Jena - Binoctem 7 x 50 - 1986
               ****
 - Carl Zeiss Jena - 7 x 50 H blc Kriegsmarine
               ****
- 7 x 50 beh - U-boat   
           
****                     
- Carl Zeiss Jena - Stenotar 5 x 12 ca 1923
            
****
- Teleplast 10x25 - Carl Zeiss Jena
             
****
- Carl Zeiss Jena - 4 Fach ca 1904  
             
**** 
-
Carl Zeiss Jena -  Asiola - Telescope
                  ****
- Winkelfernrohr (binocular telescope)                           ****
 -
10x26 (24) - 1916

                ****
- Carl Zeiss Jena - 8 fach ca 1905
                ****
- Carl Zeiss Jena Feldstecher 8 vergr 1902.
                ****
- Gustav Heyde Dresden Telescope
                ****
Carl Zeiss Jena - 6x24 zinc model 03
                ****
        

         Page 3

-
eug 10 x 80 80 degree         
              
****
- 5 & 10 Marine Revolver Carl Zeiss Jena 
                
****
 - 8 x 30 Nedinsco 1934 
                
****
- 7 x 50 blc Kriegsmarine 1941 -with a special case  
               
****
7x50 blc Kriegsmarine 1942 (2 binoculars)
               
****
- 7 x 50 blc Kriegsmarine 1943 Benutzer Cup
               
****
- 7 x 50 blc with the letter “U”
                  ****   
-
8 x 40 Delactis CZJ- 1924 
                  ****
- 8 x 40 Delactis CZJ -1930 
               
****
- 8 x 40 Delactem CZJ - 1930 
                
****
- 8x40 CZJ monocular - 1924
   
                                        

                Page 4

 - Gasmask binoculars
               
****
         Page 5

 - U-Boat Binoculars 7x50 & 8x60
               
****
        
Page 6

 -
Schutz Kassel Model - Soclar 15 x 56-1950 ;
              
****
- D.F. 18 x 50 CZJ -1916 ;    
               ****
- Telarem 18 x 50 CZJ - 1936 ;      
              ****

CZJ 7 x 50 Binoctar ;

               ****
        Page 7

 -
Carl Zeiss London 1917
               ****
- Carl Zeiss West Germany 8 x 30B;  
              ****
- Carl Zeiss West Germany 8 x 30
               ****
-Carl Zeiss aus Jena, DDR 7 x 50W Jenoptem
               ****
        Page 8
 German Theater glasses

-
Teleater 3 x 13,5 - CZJ; 
              ****
-Theatis 3,5 x 15 -CZJ;
              ****
-Teletur 6 x 15 CZJ & Telescope Magnifier;  
              ****
- Diadem 3,6 x 12 CZ West Germany
               ****
- Diadem 3,6 x 12 other produc.
               ****

        
Page 8 a
 German Theater & miniature glasses

 -
Theatis 3 ½ x 15 Möller Wedel
                 ****
- Busch Winett 3 x 20 Rathenow 1910;
                 ****
- Beck Kassel CBS 3 1/2 x 26 Carmen;
                 ****
- G. Rodenstock MĂĽnchen Aldon;
                 ****
- ABC Optistar 6 x 17;
                 ****
- ABC Fata Morgana 4x12 1920;
                ****
- Mirakel 5 x 15 Harwix Berlin;
               ****
- Oigelet DRP 6 x17 Oigee Berlin;
               ****
- Turmon 8x21 1935 & 1970s
               ****
                                                                     
Page 9
   Binoculars with 10x magnification

 - 10x50 Dienstglas blc prod No 20938;     
              **** 
 - 10x50 Dienstglas rln prod No 100272;  
              ****
 - 10x50 CZJ prod No 2307297 -1945;     
               ****
 -
10x50 Dienstglas cxn prod No 397898  
               ****

       
-Educational Tools - Carl Zeiss Jena (CZJ)








 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

    Unusual - optics
      Page 1

  -
CZJ 7x50 Binoctem CF shorter model
         *****
  - Binoculars Kern 9 x 80
        ****
 -
D.F. 3 x 18 Carl Zeiss - 1900

     
Page 2
 
Kriegsmarine binoculars  

 
Carl Zeiss 10 x 50 T model
     
****
 Carl Zeiss 7 x 50 T model “N”
     
****
 
7 x 50 H blc T - with letter “N”

      Page 3

     10 x 80 multicoated cxn Flak 45Ëš

      Page 4
 

 Zeiss 3 x 20 Teleplast and a comparison to the 5 x 20 model

     
Page 5
 - Kriegsmarine Carl Zeiss -eug 10x80; 80 degrees

     
Page 6
 - Kriegsmarine Carl Zeiss - eug 10x80; 20 degrees
 *********************************************
   
 
Articles by Anna & Terry Vacani:
- Gustav Heyde Dresden Telescope ca 1896-1912
       
****
 - C. P. Goerz Optics
       
****
 - U-Boat binoculars and other items
       
****
 -
History of H. Kolberg binoculars
          ****
   - 7 x 50 H binocular for signaling
          ****
   - U.D.F 7 x 50 blc U-boat sight
         
****
   - 25 x 100 binoculars
          ****
   - 8 x 60 Carl Zeiss Deck Mounted
          ****
   - Avimo prototype 7x42 and military model
         ****
  - Unusual construction of optics in some binoculars - Ross London 20 x 160 and Bakelite cxn
 

 

     Page 7

 - Marine Revolver 5 & 10 magnification - Carl Zeiss Jena

    
Page 8

  - Gasmask Binoculars

  
  Page 8 a
 
   - BBT Krauss/Huet 7 x50; with unique eye ocular distance bar

      Page 11

  - Ross 6 x 28 and 12 x 28 with an unconventional construction 1908


      
Page 12

     - Nouvelle Maison - Jules Huet & Cie - 20x50










****************************************************************

              
Articles written by other authors

  - Carl Zeiss London LTD- By Thomas Antoniades


  - BIMAR  -The little known history of the Ducati 20° inclined 10x80 binoculars; By Giuseppe Finizio
 
        

 We would like to present a very interesting web site of Robert Forslund:
    http://www.forslund.de/contact1.html
 

 

 

 

 


I. The list of the binoculars Literature. The list will be extended.


In English language:

1. Dr. Stephen Rohan – Eyes of The Wehrmacht.  An illustrated guide to The German World War II;  10 x 80 Binoculars; Volume I. Published by Rohan Optical Press Bradbury, California 1996 

2. Dr. Stephen Rohan – A Guide to Handheld Military Binoculars 1894-1945. Published by Optical Press Bradbury, California, 2001(ISBN 0-9709003-0-9)

3. Robert Forslund – Swedish Military Binoculars. The Best Possible Binoculars. Leezen 2009

4. William Reid – Barr & Stroud Binoculars and The Royal Navy.  Published by National Museums of Scotland, Edinburgh  2001 (ISBN 1-901663-66-3)

5. R.C. Gregory – Notes on Binoculars and their use. Published in 2003 (ISBN 0-9544050-0-5)

6. R.C. Gregory M.A. - Fine Binoculars of The Twentieth Century. Published in 2004 (ISBN 0-9544050-2-1)

7. R.C. Gregory M.A. - Binoculars: A Pocket Guide. Published in 2005 (ISBN 0-9544050-4-8)

In German language:
1. Liste der Fertigungskennzeichen fĂĽr Waffen, Munition und Gerät (Nach Buchstabengruppen geordnet) Berlin 1944 Gedruck im Oberkommando des Heeres. Originalgetreuer Nachdruck, herausgegeben von Karl R.Pawlas, Publizistisches Archiv fĂĽr Militär- und Waffenwesen. NĂĽrnberg 1977  (ISBN 3 – 88088 – 214 – 2). [‘List of Manufacturer’s Marks for Arms, Ammunition and Implements’ that had been edited in 1940 to 1945 as a secret publication by the Supreme Command of the Army (Chief of the Army Armament and Commander of the Reserve Army) Army Ordnance Department Wa Z 2. ]

2. Karsten Porezag - Hensoldt. Geschichte eines Optische Werkers in Wetzlar. Band 1: Familien- und GrĂĽndungsgeschichte bis 1903. Published in 2001 Karsten Porezag, Wetzlar (ISBN 3-9807950-0-4) - Hensoldt - History of an optical company in Wetzlar. Volume 1: Family History and founding of the Company until 1903. The translation of the title into English, by Google language tools.

 3. Hans T. Seeger - Felstecher. Ferngläser im Wandel der Zeit; Germany Hamburg 1989. Binoculars. Binoculars through the ages. The translation of the title into English, by Google language tools. (read book)

4. Hans T. Seeger - Militärische Ferngläser und Fernrohre in Heer, Luftwaffe und Marine;  Military Binoculars and Telescope for Land, Air and Sea Service. Germany Hamburg 1995; ISBN 3-00-000457-2. The title of the book is in German and English language. (gray book)

5. Hans T. Seeger - Zeiss-Feldstecher Handferngläser von 1894-1919. Modelle - Merkmale - Mythos. The book is in German language. Zeiss binoculars  hand binoculars from 1894-1919. Modles - Features - Myth - the title translated by Google. Dr Hans T. Seeger, Hamburg 2010, ISBN 3-00-031440-7. (blue book)

In Polish language:
1. Antoni M.Piaskowski – Dawne Lunety I Lornetki W Zbiorach Polskich; Warszawa 1996 (ISBN 83-901353-7-X) ) -  Old lunettes and binoculars in Polish collection.

2. Piotr Matejuk – Wojskowe Przyrzady Optyczne w II Rzeczpospolitej;  Published by Bellona, Warszawa 1997 )ISBN 83-11-08675-3) ) - The military optical instruments in the II Polish Republic.

 

 

 

 

II. The Dictionary
 History of binocular construction according to Dr. Stephen Rohan description in book 2 (no. 2 in the list-above)

- Galilean binoculars, Non-prism binoculars

’Galilean binoculars’ were named after Galileo Galilei, the Italian astronomer. These binoculars consist of convex lenses for the objectives and concave lenses for the eyepieces; they form upright images. Galilean binoculars feature neither high magnification nor a wide field of view.

- Relief Fernrohr (teleplast)

Originally patented in 1894 by Ernst Abbe of Carl Zeiss. The Relieffernrohr can be used in the horizontal position for increased stereoscopic affect and in the vertical position for increased height to look over obstruction.

- Original Porro Abbe I type prism system

Originally patented in 1894 by Ernst Abbe of Carl Zeiss, Jena Germany. The prism system was separately invented on the same principle of the invention  of Ignazio Porro in 1854. Called the Abbe-Porro system often shortened to Porro I Prism system.

                                                   Abbe & Schott;125  
    
            Two the most important men in the history of Carl Zeiss Jena; The picture from Carl Zeiss Catalogue - December 1936, in our collection
 
- Modern Porro I Prism system
The
Ignazio Porro prism system was not successfully put into production until Ernst Abbe, later independently, invented the prism system working with Carl Zeiss. Abbe’s system also gave a more stereoscopic effect, which was important in the patent. The Porro Abbe is widely used in binoculars today. Porro prism binoculars have a simple, rugged construction and form a bright image. Most modern Porro I binoculars have this more compact prism system, with prism elements closely positioned together.

- Porro II prism system
The prism cluster is cemented together giving a more efficient light transmitting system. This is due to fewer glass to air surfaces and therefore less reflection of light at those surface interfaces, although the field lens is a separate component.
 
- Porro II “H”  type
System with field lens cemented to prism cluster. In German abbreviated “H” system “Helligkeit”. First used by Zeiss and Ross of England, in the late 1920’s. This system increases light transmission by reducing one more glass to air surface and the consequent light loss by reflection at that interface.

- Roof  prism system
Roof prism binoculars are popular because of their lower weight and compact size. With a few exceptions, most military roof prism binoculars were made in Germany until the end of WWII.
************
Exit pupil
Holding binocular at arms length and look at the center of the eyepiece lens, it is visible a small circle of light. This is named the ‘exit pupil’. All the light departure from the binocular is transmitted through the exit pupil. The diameter of exit pupil is definite by the ratio of objective lens diameter and magnification.
For instance: a binocular 7 x 50 -> exit pupil -> 50/7= 7.14 mm.
The binoculars with a large exit pupil are more suitable for use in low light levels and obviously for astronomy. Low quality of the prism can give a chromatic aberration around the sideline of the image.

Field of view
Field of view can be illustrated as an angle or a visible width of field’s cover at 1000 meters. Field view pipil - 12%for web

On the picture from Zeiss catalogue *) - the plate is showing the fields of view: wide angle field glasses (whole circle); prism field glasses (black circle), and non prismatic glass (white circle).



















*) ‘Zeiss Field Glasses’, published by Carl Zeiss Jena for -  General Distributing Agencies in All Principal Cities in The World - June 1931. The catalogue is in our collection.

 Lens coating
Coating helps to reduce reflected light, and increase the percentage of light reaching the eye. The lens coating was not available on civilian binoculars before the war. The lens coating was available on some military binoculars from late 1935, only in Germany, not on a Swedish contract or export models. Some models are marked with a letter ‘T’ indicating a coated optics. Not all coated binoculars were marked with a ‘T’ letter. Later on the coated binoculars were mostly not marked with  the letter ‘T’